Tourism Impact on Communities

مهر 06, 1396
Tourism effects
However, there is no doubt that tourism plays an important role in the economic recovery and diversification of societies, but at the same time it can bring about changes in the social, economic and biological environment of the regions (Sharply, J, and Richard, 1997: 12). The effects and changes that this industry may have on society can be physical, economic, or social, and cultural (Chuck, 323: 1377). However, since the tourism industry’s outcomes are often complex and varies in different regions, the effects of the tourism industry are very different in different regions and districts.

Hence, the identification of the impacts and consequences of residues in the tourism areas studied and the study of the effects of tourism and the prediction of these effects in the studied area in order to plan and manage tourism development and increase the benefits of tourism development and reduction Possible disadvantages or negative impacts in host societies and ultimately the achievement of a sustainable and sustainable development of tourist areas is unavoidable. Therefore, in this research, it has been tried to investigate the studies and researches carried out in different areas in the field of tourism and its effects on the tourist areas, as far as possible, these positive and negative effects of tourism are identified and classified in a particular classification. It should be noted, however, that the effects identified in this research are according to the broad categories widely used by tourism researchers and classified. These classes include: economic, social, cultural, and environmental and political.

environmental effects

Tourism and the environment are mutually interdependent (Henter, 1997: 16). On the one hand, the physical environment (natural and man-made) provides many attractions and natural tourist resources, and on the other hand, tourism development can have positive and negative effects on the environment (Mahdavi, 76: 1383).

Meaning of the environment, land, air, water, plants, wildlife and man-made crafts. The environment of different regions and districts has always been used by locals and other tourists to recreate and estimate other motivations.

However, the expansion and development of tourism in areas of natural environment will have the potential to have environmental effects, and can have many problems for people in those areas, namely the destruction of forests and vegetation, the accumulation and increase of waste, creating noise or eliminating Farms and gardens, or vice versa, can have positive effects such as protecting the environment, protecting ancient and historic sites and rebuilding them, landscaping, creating infrastructure and infrastructure, and so on. Hence the development and management of tourism in a way that is compatible with the environment and does not lead to a decline in its quality is considered as a key factor in achieving sustainable development. Therefore, in order to plan tourism in terms of the environment, understanding and recognizing the impact of tourism on the environment is of primary importance (Ranjbarian and Zahedi, 73: 2000).

According to the results of the studies, we can say that the main common consequence of many studies and studies on the impact of tourism development on the environment is the fact that the main objective of eco-tourism and in some areas is the reason why tourism in many Of the areas as sources (Butler.R, 2001: 10).

In this regard, Matthyson and Wall have referred to four main types of environmental protection impacts in the overview on scientific literature in the world, as well as examples from the Third World:

First, the reconstruction of existing buildings (redevelopment) and historic sites, in some countries in Asia and Europe, there have been significant improvements in the restoration and restoration of the protection of ancient cities and villages and historic shrines and temples and hotels, The following is mentioned: Reconstruction of historical monuments and rural residences (paradors) in Spain (Sharpley.J, 1997: 20). Second, turning and changing old buildings for new uses. For example, you can name India. There, a luxury hotel has been built there since the merger of a large guest house and Maharaja Palace in Mysore. Third, environmental protection, which can be seen in many Third World countries by the construction and conservation of national parks (Munshizadeh and Nasiri, 42: 1380). For example, in some of the studies examined, the role of tourism development in rural settlements has been emphasized on the protection of the natural environment and wildlife, which can be considered as some of the following environmental interests: protecting the population of Jazren monkeys in Belmiz, reducing illegal hunting in Guardian National Park in Thailand, the protection of lands and wildlife around the Masaya village in Tanzania, and the protection of the aquatic population in the province of Vanzulo in South Africa and the conservation of wildlife around the Masouka villages in Zimbabwe (Butler.R, 2001: 11) and Fourth, the methods of planning and applying controls to ensure Proper environmental management is necessary. Famous for some of the attractions, management and control that in the absence of tourism, there may be no need for it.

Compared to the positive effects mentioned above, the development of tourism may have negative effects on the natural environment inside and around tourist settlements. In some studies, environmental problems are identified within and around tourist areas. The accumulation and accumulation of waste and waste, felling trees and destroying the vegetation
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