The effectiveness of teamwork in private organizations

آبان 06, 1396
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کی نی کی،2000)
The effectiveness of teamwork in private organizations

Ghazaleh Esilzadeh Marketing Director of Villasho

Abstract: Promoting different levels of the organization requires accountable planning. For proper planning, the organization’s internal and external challenges must first be investigated and put the best on the agenda, according to the circumstances. Today’s work is a team of the best. In this article, the concepts of team, team, and the effectiveness of teamwork were discussed and the beneficial and harmful factors were expressed in the process of formation of the team up to teamwork. For this purpose, the activities of the personnel of the technical complex of Dibaran Sari were studied. To obtain information, the participatory observation method (without awareness of the members of the group) was used for 6 months. The total number of personnel was 12, of which 9 were female (75%) and 3 were male (25%). The members of a group come together to achieve a common goal; people in the teams have a faith in each other and they use their full potential for the common purpose. The most important difference between the team and the team is the synergy of the team. Managers with strong insights and people at the appropriate organizational level will lead to efficient use of working teams.
Keyword: Team, Team, Teamwork, Effectiveness, Teamwork Effectiveness

Due to the complex and rapidly changing environment and engaging organizations with technologies that communicate with other domestic counterparts and their foreign limited to a clicked, teamwork, to overtake rivals and reach the efficiency desired, an integral part of the implementation The commands are managed. Understanding the concepts of group, team, and cardiomy can be helpful in managing management. It should also be noted that the effectiveness of teamwork is realized when individuals with an appropriate, well-deserved job are able to fully utilize their commands and try to bring the organization into perspective. To meet the challenges posed by the current environment, business organizations are increasingly replacing the team with institutional hierarchy and formal systems. Many organizations find that the best way to increase employee productivity is to take into account the ways in which they have to manage working groups and teams in particular. (1) When the teams are successful, they have the potential to offer many benefits, such as increased flexibility and creativity, and if they fail, they will lose significant resources. Organizations must therefore maximize the likelihood of success of the teams. One of the easiest ways to do this is to focus on team members. In fact, the success of a team depends on having the best combination of people who can work together. (Kiechok & Wapsner, 1998). The target environment for this research is an educational complex. Dibaran Complex is a technical training complex that started its activity in Sari city in 2008. The complex focuses on the provision of educational services, such as training packages, short-term training courses, etc., based on professors and skilled staff and facilities. Based on the beliefs, values, ethical issues governing the community and the creation of a proper mentality in its customers, the organization is working to maintain survival and profitability. This training center has always aimed at developing educational facilities and facilities to meet the standards of credibility and satisfaction of its customers, and pursues its operational policies. Given the explanation given, it is necessary to determine in this article what is meant by team and team work. What are the influential factors in team work? What factors also increase the effectiveness of teamwork in private organizations. The findings of this research can help us identify the effectiveness of teamwork.
Information gathering method
In this paper, a participatory observational research method has been used to collect information. In this way, the target environment is the technical training of the Dibaran Sari, and there is no interference in the normal course of events, and the contents have been recorded and investigated accordingly. The author was present as one of the personnel in the environment. During a six-month period, personnel performance was monitored according to the instructions that the management of the complex had adopted. The number of personnel was 12, including 9 women (75%) and 3 men (25%). Information was also recorded directly by the researcher and with the help of cameras installed in the institute. The research was divided into two dimensions of the first three months (first of September 93 to the end of November 93) and the second quarter (1 December 93 to the end of February 93).
What is the group?
One can define the group based on the perceptions of individuals; that is, if people see themselves in the group, then there will be a group. (5)
Mc David and Hararite (1968) groups that have defined: organized military of two or more individuals who interact with each other so that the system can operate, the standard for the relationship between the members is present, and the norms comply Which controls the function of the group and each of its members. The group can be defined according to the concept of motivation to "a group of people who have a collective existence for their own people." (6)
A community of two or more people who interact with each other to achieve one or more shared goals. (Sher Morgen et al. 1995)
From the point of view of sociologists, two or more people who have been interacting freely have collective norms, seek to achieve collective goals, and have a common identity (Catherine and
A five-step pattern of group evolution
Stage One - Formation: At this stage, there is no consensus in terms of purpose, structure, and leadership, and its members are highly uncertain in these cases. Members of the organization are constantly reviewing and testing what kind of behavior they have accepted. This stage is complete when individuals consider themselves to be part of a group.
Stage II - conflict: conflict or intra-group conflict, members accept the group’s existence, but resist the control the group wants to impose on individuals. Moreover, there is no consensus on who wants to control the group, and in some cases collisions are observed. After completing this period, the hierarchy of authority will be identified within the group.
Stage III - Coherence: At this stage, there is a solid relationship between the members of the group, which represents coherence. When this stage is completed, the group structure is solid and solid, and the group identifies the type of behavior that each individual must have.
Stage Four - Evolution: At this stage, the group is active and accepted. The force that the group used to know and understand was already used now. The fourth stage is the final stage of the evolutionary phase of the group, which then puts the group in its daily work, but there is another stage in relation to the temporary committees, working groups, teams and similar groups that are formed to carry out certain tasks.
Step Five: Disconnect: At this point, the group is ready to announce its end. After that, doing important things is not in the priorities of the group, but the group is stepping up the task of summarizing and closing down the activities. At this stage, the type of reaction of the members of the group is different, some feel happy and happy with the goals of the group, and others are sad and upset because they have to lose friends who have been around for a while.
Types of groups
Groups can be categorized according to type, function, and development stages:
Official groups: These groups are formed to help the organization achieve its goals, and have titles such as workgroup, team, committee, quality circle, or task force.
The workgroup is composed of people working together on a collaborative effort.
The task team is temporarily formed to achieve a special purpose or solve a particular problem.
Committees are usually out of group manager’s structure to solve problems.
Unofficial groups: These groups are formed when the dominant goal is the gathering together of friendships. The two common types of unofficial groups are friendship and interest groups. These groups are shaped by helping people accomplish their work to meet the needs that are not met by formal groups. (2)
What is the team
A small group of people with different specialties is complementary to the common goal for which they are created and are responsible for it. (Smith and Katzenbach, 1993)
Two or more people who interact with each other and can interact with each other for a common purpose. (7)
An active group of people committed to achieving common goals that work and enjoy, working together, and delivering high-quality results ... (Ian Fleming)
The team consists of a few people with complementary skills who are committed to the goals, objectives and shared vision and are responsible for them. (Katzenbach and Smith)
There are a limited number of people with complementary skills that are matched against each other for the common purpose and operational objectives and with the approach of mutual responsibility. (3)
Five Stage Team Evolution Model (BD. Tuckman)
Formation: In the first stage, the group can be shaped and learned by the type of behavior. The group, by examining what it does and does, does not distinguish the explicit and hidden main rules of the process of completing specific tasks in accordance with group dynamics. This stage To a large extent, there is a period of justification, familiarity with the new conditions.
Hurricane formation: while members of the group get together, they may oppose the structure of the group with a personalized tool and showing individual characters. Often, members of the group disagree with the rules of principle, and sometimes at the formation stage with it Fight.
Normalization: at this time, the conflicts created in the first phase are examined, hoping that the differences will disappear. After the group members adopt goals, norms and rules of principle, the unity of the group is created, the team as a whole will be involved in the affairs and will not be a speaker of a handful of members. The members of the group express personal opinions and strengthen relationships.
Action: After solving structural problems, the group acts as a unit. The structure of the group’s dynamic group is now approved and facilitated. The structure for the members of the group takes on one aspect of a tool or mode, and then it is not a problem to be solved. At this time, members of the group should not attempt to form a group, but they will use the structure to work on what they are facing.
Ending activities: Finally, for temporary groups, such as battles, it is time to end their activities. The members of the group, while ending the activities in their minds, do not forget that they should change the theme of having a determined determination
They are doing a lot of work and thinking about ending collective activity. This attitude causes people to experience situations ranging from excitement to depression. Team types • Teams have different forms, including: • Work team • Job planning team • Customer service teams • Sales teams • Self-organizing teams

Differences between teams and teams
Perception: In one group, members believe that they are gathered for executive purposes. In the meantime, people may interfere in each other’s work and, for their own benefit, jeopardize or ignore the interests of others. In a team, members of the self-determination team have realized that they are the best way to achieve individual and collective goals. , Support is mutual. In the team, time does not go away with the struggle of the roots and bases and attaining personal goals at the expense of compromising the interests of others.
Ownership: In a group, more people focus on themselves and their goals, as they do not play a significant role in planning their goals and course. They look at their job as a recruiting worker. In a group, people are more likely to seek their personal interest. In a team, people feel ownership of their work and their sector, because they are committed to the goals and values ​​they share in creating them.
Creativity and Collaboration: In one group, things are dictated by people instead of looking at the best approach. Suggestions and creativity are not encouraged. In a team, individuals engage in the success of their organization through the use of personal talents, knowledge and creativity.
Trust: In one group, people have a sense of lack of trust in the motives of their colleagues because they do not understand their role in the organization. In one group, the expression of opinion or opposition is considered to be divisive and non-supportive. In a team, people are busy with confidence and are encouraged to express their ideas, opinions, disagreements and feelings. A team accepts questions and questions from its members.
Understanding: In a group, people are very cautious about their profession, so there is never room for real understanding. Unsurprising people may be allowed to play or provided traps for them to play. In a team, members of the open and honest communication community are practicing. They try to understand each other’s points of view.
Individual Growth: In one group, people get good training, but they are limited to how they are employed by the manager and the work team in a team. In a team, members are encouraged to develop their skills and work in their work. To apply. They clearly see the direct support of the team.
Elimination of contradictions: In one group, individuals find themselves in conflicting situations that are unknown to how they are solved. The supervisor or their manager may be prevented from intervening until serious injury (the crisis situation). In a team, members understand that conflict is one of the normal aspects of interpersonal relationships, and offers such opportunities an opportunity to New ideas and creativity.
Participatory Decisionmaking: In a group, individuals may participate in a decision influencing the group. In one group, often the match and congruency with the congregation are more important than positive ones. Winning / Losing positions are very common in a group. In a team, members participate in team decisions, but they know that the team leader must make the final decision when the final decision is made to the problem or in an emergency. The winning / winning positions are at the end of the team’s final goal.
Transparent leadership: In one group, members tend to work in an environment where performance standards are not defined. Leaders are usually not at the scene of action and prefer to lead behind their desk. In a team, members work in a structured environment. They know that there are boundaries and who is the final decision maker and reference. Leader sets out the highest standards of performance agreed by everyone and is respected through the active participation and willingness of the group.
Commitment: In a group, members do not have a specific commitment to individual privilege. The balance of performance is usually average. Personnel relocations are often seen, because people are prone to find out:
(A) Their personal expectations are not met.
B) do not grow and learn from others.
C) Do not work with the best people.
In a team, only those who are committed to excellence and excellence are hired. Future team members are behind the team to recruit teams based on their high skill levels. Everyone works in an environment that is consistent and in harmony. (Author: Nigel Williams Translator: Seyed Mohammad Mousavi)
How to convert a team to a group
Stage One: Formation
• Look for people who are polite, do not say anything, talk and talk to each other and benchmark each other.
Stage II: Conflict
To advance the group, it has to deal with issues in a way that works for the team, has agreed and solved the problems.
Stage Three: Criteria
The mere organization of the team demonstrates that teamwork has been addressed and members’ skill levels have been identified.
At this stage, there is a risk that the group will collapse into the stage of conflict. Only trying to make work work can put ideas into question the values ​​and workings that have already been established.
Step Four: Run
At the implementation stage, the team leader can do a lot to encourage group activities.
Contradiction: Contradiction can often have a positive effect on a group. This could lead to new ideas and new issues. The contradiction is a natural thing. Skill can turn it into a creative force. One of the issues that brings team ability is the number of members, beliefs and experiences that can sometimes be out of control. Usually dealing with the contradictions created by the team is the responsibility of the team leader.
There are many ways to control conflicts, such as: competition, participation, compromise, prevention, adaptability. The impact of organizational performance is the amount that an organization uses with specific resources without waste of its resources and without the wear and tear of its members And its society fulfills its goals. (10) In fact, organizational effectiveness is the degree of proximity of an organization to its goals (11), in other words, the extent to which an organization achieves its goals (12) the model’s organizational effectiveness of the target model The Goal Model, the traditional model of effectiveness, relies on a type of organization as a set of components that tend to cluster Going for goals. In this perspective or model, effectiveness is defined as the achievement or achievement of organizational implications. In this model, focus is greatly on achieving goals and objectives. (13) System Model The system model, while ignoring the importance of objectives, focuses on the tools needed to achieve specific goals, resources, and processes. has it. In this model, the concept of the organization is rooted in the open system perspective: inputs into processes are converted (input to output) and outputs are viewed as part of a whole, rather than as independent variables. (14) Strategic-Constituents Model ) This model extends the scope of the two previous models by adding the expectations of various strong interest groups that are affected by the organization. Therefore, the organization is seen as a set of internal and external factors that agree on a complex set of barriers and objectives for negotiation. In this model, owners, employees, customers, suppliers, creditors, community and government are interest groups that must be satisfied with the organization’s effectiveness and survival. (14) The Competing-Values ​​Model model, according to Stephen Robbins Competitive values ​​begin with the assumption that there is no best criterion for evaluating organizational effectiveness. The concept of effectiveness is the conceptual concept of the mind, and the goals that an evaluation chooses relies on is personal values, preferences and individual interests. This approach argued that there are common elements that are placed on each list of effectiveness criteria and can be combined together to create a set of competitive values. Each of these sets of values ​​defines a unique effectiveness model. The Ineffectiveness Model of this model provides a different perspective, focusing on factors that prevent successful organization performance and by looking at the organization as a set of problems and errors. The basic assumption of this model is that it is more accurate, more useful and more profitable; more and more, problems and deficiencies (ineffectiveness) must be determined to be the criterion of merit (effectiveness). Therefore, organizational effectiveness is defined as the absence of ineffective factors. (14)

The manager’s skill in guiding group activities (and not domination of the group) is an important factor in ensuring teamwork success. Having formalized methods for forming councils and providing guidelines for leaders and members of the group can bring about effective results. (Stoner)
The research on the effectiveness of carditis in organizations can be divided into two main sets (15). The first set of research is based on system thinking and based on the input-process-output structure. This model was originally developed by McGraith (McGrath) was introduced in 1994 and evolved by Hackman and Morris in 1975 and subsequent researchers. The most comprehensive research in this field is the integrated model provided by Tannenbaum et al. In 1992, which presents the following four input variables for teamwork:
1. Attitudes of members (such as attitude, skill, knowledge, motivation and mental models)
2. Work structure (tasks, team rules and communication structure)
3. Team Features (Power Distribution, Members’ Coherence, Team Resources, Culture and Coherence)
4. Task of duty (type and complexity of tasks)
These variables are not only related to one another, but also relate to the processes implemented by the team over time. These processes that are at the center of the model include coordination, communication, conflict resolution, decision making, and problem solving. These processes are directly related to output performance or output variables, which are grouped into three sets:
1. Changes in the team (rules, roles, patterns of communication and new processes)
2. Team performance (quantity, quality, mistakes and costs)
3. Individual changes (changes in input variables provided by members such as attitudes, motivation, mental models, etc.)
The main point of this model is considering the effects of organizational and situational factors on the teamwork system (input-process-output). These factors include reward systems, training, resource scarcity, management control, environmental stress, organizational climate, competence level, inter-group relationships, and environmental uncertainty (16).
The second set of investigations includes the framework for the effectiveness of teamwork (15), which was presented by Compton and colleagues in 1993 through the coherence and expansion of initial models. These researchers have defined five main groups of teamwork effectiveness variables that are: job design, dependency, composition, context, and process.
The team’s effectiveness assessment model presented by Batman et al. (2002) has six dimensions: synergy, performance goals, skills, resource utilization, innovation and quality.
Synergy: An understanding of the goal that is shared among the team members, which results in greater efficiency than the total individual members’ effectiveness.
Functional Objectives: The existence of clear operational goals that are set up by the team and continuously monitored.
Skill: It is pointed out that the team members are adequately trained and competent for their work; there is also flexibility in the use of skills.
Use of resources: All resources, including people, buildings and equipment, are used effectively and as far as possible.
Innovation: The team is continually looking for ways to improve and enhance products and workplaces.
Quality: There is a high level of awareness of customers and standards are defined and monitored.
Five Patriotic Warriors (Patrick Lennington). Engineer Fazlolah Amini, Fars Winter Edition 82
1 The first pest is the distrust of team members. The root of this pest is the unwillingness of the members of the team to be vulnerable among the crowd. Those members of the team that do not open their hearts to their hearts in the presence of others and hide their weaknesses and mistakes, destroy the background of trust.
2 Failure to create trust is a disadvantage because the underlying pest is another one that we call fear. In groups where mistrust is dominant, the possibility of honest engagement of opinions and beliefs is eliminated and replaced by controversial discussions and side-by-side comments.
3 The lack of healthy cohesive background is another problem that is called a lack of commitment. If people can not say their opinions during open and passionate discussions, they will never, or at least rarely, adhere to decisions they make, although they will pretend to make decisions at meetings and in the presence of others.
4 Due to the lack of commitment and actual participation, members of the team reinforce the ability to avoid responsibility and accountability, which is the fourth pest. In the absence of commitment to specific programs, even the most concentrated and most motivated people often do not want to be colleagues whose actions and behavior are harmful to the head.
5 Failure to take responsibility for one another will lead to the fifth pest. Failure to take into account the purpose and outcome of work occurs when the members of the team are superior to the individual needs (such as authority, career progression, or need for approval and praise), or even their needs for teamwork goals and goals. So, just like when a ring of a string is cut, if we let even a defect be found in the teamwork, the entire teamwork will be damaged.

The Sari technical training complex has a 10-year-oldship in providing educational services to students. Providing specialized software courses, specialized courses in specialized academic courses, etc., is the most part of the organization’s activities. During the six-month period of teamwork and the effectiveness of teamwork in this organization participated. Each staff member was responsible for the management of certain academic disciplines. The Faculty of Electrical Engineering has a Master’s Degree
C Imran had another responsibility. The staff shift was also different (e.g. 9-17,10-18,12-20). According to the materials mentioned and given that the customers of this organization are often students, it can be seen that the customer’s hours of visiting the client may vary with the time of attendance of the responsible department. In this section, the importance of the card is revealed. In the six-month period, the effectiveness of teamwork was studied. In the first trimester (from September 1993 to November 93) after the client came to the organization and in case of absence of the responsible person, the student’s student number was received so that the coordinator would be provided by the departmental director for the following day and provided the necessary explanations. To be In this operation, the return of the student to register was very low. For example, out of every 10 students, three would be returned to the institute for enrollment. But another way was adopted in the second quarter (from December 93 to February 93). So that the work was taken out of solitude and took the form of a team. Now, the authorities in all sectors were obligated to provide sufficient information to potential customers who entered the organization if they were not responsible for the department’s department. These explanations and information were transmitted through several internal sessions among the staff, and it was observed that the registration of the attendees went up dramatically. For example, this time, seven out of every ten respondents registered 7 people, and interestingly, of 7 people, 3 people at the same time, they followed the registration process after obtaining the necessary explanations. Successful success with undoing Cardimy. Given the presentations, experienced managers have found that in order to enhance the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the organization, they should be part of their planning to raise the level of staff culture to better understand the team concept and teamwork. The formation of teams alone can not be superior to competitors, but all conditions should be favorable. Choosing members is one of the most important factors in success. Each person comes with a different culture of service to the organization. An appropriate format for people with different cultures and traditions can be a first step in building a strong team. Contributors like trust, lack of fear and ... should Be educated to employees by training. The capabilities of a team will be fully determined by its evaluation. Managers should note that, for example, a strong marketing team will never be able to provide service with the same power in support, making use of the capabilities of individuals at their place will have the highest efficiency and effectiveness.
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