Ethics in the business of Iran

آبان 07, 1396
Ethics in the business of the Iranian market
Ghazaleh Esmail Zadeh

Abstract
Whether the right trade can be different from each individual’s point of view, but with little consideration it can be seen that the ethical beliefs and beliefs of the majority of people are close to each other in the world. There is no doubt about the falsehood and inappropriate practice, and examples of this Ethics and ethics are important criteria for the business world. They define ethics as "doing things right". Now, they take into account different concepts for the correctness of the work. In this article, various aspects are taken into account. Ethics were dealt with, and the business of today’s world was measured by ethics. An additional symbol of ethics, ethics, ethics, uncle Business, ethics and business have been presented. Ethics and ethics may be among the aspirations of many countries, in order to achieve it, there should be a variety of principles such as trust, honesty, integrity, faith. And ... rely on.
Keyword: Ethics, Business, Business Ethics










Introduction
An ethical investment is considered as one of the most important issues in the business arena. The roots of this trend are very different in society as well as among investors. Religion, political issues, and the environment are among the most important roots of this tendency. There are now more than fifty institutes active in the field of ethics-based investments, which describe the principles, provide guidance and advice to individuals on investing in institutions and companies, and, on the other hand, take supervisory action. they give. Business and business have a long history of human civilization. Human beings have long been trading to meet their needs. This trade in its evolutionary process has gradually shifted from its original form (commodity to commodity), in the form of currency exchange (commodity money).
As a result of this development, trade gradually becomes a means of gaining profit, and entry into the business sector is mainly aimed at achieving market success and profitability. An individual trader tries to attract more customers by taking a decent share of the market. In this way, the success of a businessman is mainly attributed to factors such as ability to compete with others, appropriate marketing, market prosperity, and so on. Among the factors that affect the success of business, sometimes the ethics of business are also discussed. This claim is contradictory, because the commercial nature of the business business does not appear to be proportional to ethical issues. Based on traditional views in economics, business and ethics, they promote two different types of virtue.
Many organizational decisions lead to complex issues that the interests of the organization can affect the interests of others. Issues that arise on stock markets in the United States and Japan, or bribes between organizations and the Italian government It turns out that the emergence of new technologies and the results of these technologies and, finally, differences or clashes between cultures are just some of the issues that arise in the field of social principles and observance of ethical principles in organizations. )
What is ethics?
"Ethics" is the term "crowd" in the sense of temperament, nature, sage and habit (2)
Some have considered ethics as the science of how to acquire good morals, according to which the good deeds of the person (3)
"Enma Be’sat Lutmem Makaram El-Khalah; I have just gotten to complete moral virtues. "(4)
We read Amir al-Mu’minnah Ali (as) who said: "Le Kena Lanjarjoo, the Prophet of Nara and the Holy Prophet, and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH & HP). If we had no hope and faith in heaven and fear of Hell, and we did not expect revenge and rebellion, then we would have to go to moral virtues, because they are the guide to salvation and victory and success. "(5)
Ethics is a personal value system that determines what is right and what’s wrong (Harrison et al., 1998)
Ethics, as a set of principles, is often defined as a prerequisite for guidance and guidance. The course of professional ethics in Ancient Iran indicates that occupation and occupation were considered to be for everyone in his work and should be regarded as an inherent ability to acquire the means to fight against Ahriman. Therefore, the profession is considered a moral and sacred concept. (6)

Ethics
The purpose of professional ethics is the ethical responsibility of the individual in terms of occupation. The physician has moral responsibility as a true person. Her moral responsibility is derived from the job she has taken, so that if she accepted another job, her moral responsibilities would change. Each profession brings special moral responsibilities into professional contexts (7)
The concept of professional ethics is taken from ethics. Professional ethics is a set of ethical codes first obtained from the nature of occupation or occupation [8].
Professional ethics increases productivity, improves communication and reduces the degree of risk, because when professional ethics prevails in the organization, the flow of data becomes easy and the manager makes an accident before it Becomes aware. (9)
The best way to grow professional ethics standards is to create associations and associations. Specialist organizations will make better ethical standards and can be better disseminated and expanded in society. These associations should cooperate with the government, because this cooperation makes the facts more realistic and easier to reach. According to him, the rate
of the expansion and growth of professional ethics depends on the extent to which successful ethics

As well as its degree of variability. Whatever the benefits of professional ethics are more comprehensive, the degree of commitment to its criteria is higher, and the more complicated the resulting bottlenecks are due to professional ethics, the more effective it is in the organization’s growth, the more robust its adherence [6] The strategic role of professional ethics will be undeniable for success in the future of the organization and will make it hard to hurt and hurt them. Achieving professional ethics is a strategic advantage. [10] Professional ethics: Responsibility / loyalty / sympathy with others / respect and respect for the values ​​and norms of society / justice and fairness / honesty / superiority and competitiveness of the Taliban General are a set of sentences that are needed to solve everyday and spiritual issues. These are the rules and regulations that we will adhere to throughout our lives. Some general ethical principles include: devotion / avoidance of violence / help Mutual / Respecting Individuals ... (1) Twelve Questions to consider ethical principles when a business decision is to be made. 1. Does this copper What is the exact definition of a crush? 2. If you were on the opposite side, how did you define it? 3. First of all, how did this situation occur? 4. As a member of the organization and to What is the title of a person, who and who you are loyal to? 5. What is your intention or intention to make this decision? 6. How can you compare this decision with the possible results? 7. What is your decision or decision? 8. Before you make this decision, can you discuss this issue with the stakeholders? 9.If you are sure that, over time, the validity of your decision will not be reduced or your credit in This 10. Will you share your action or decision clearly with your boss, CEO, board of directors, family, or the entire community? 11. If anyone can understand your action (or fail to) 12. What about the good stance, what conditions or aspects are used? Laura l.nash, "ethics without the semon." Harvard business review 59 (November-December, 1981). ): 78-90 Individual ethics development levels Level 1: Traditional rules follow the rules to not be punished. Work and obey for self-interest. Level 2: Generally follows the expectations of others. It performs the duties and obligations of the social system. From the law of protection Level 3: It follows the new principles of justice and righteousness that it chooses. People know that they have different values ​​and they seek creative solutions to ethical bottlenecks. They balance the concerns of individuals and the interest of the public. . Leadership style: authoritarian / compulsory guidance / encouragement, transformative leadership team, staffing staff: implementation of the duty of cooperation between the Multinational Workers Group, the full participation of individual moral education (Dast, 198: 1378). What is the business of Oxford Glossary, Business Work means trading and trading. In Longman’s Dictionary of Business, the business of making money and trading, from which money is derived, is said to be simple business, a state of engagement, and in general, includes activities that produce and procure Goods and services with the aim of selling them in order to profit. According to Eureka and Hunt, and the work in which the services or activities that other people in the community need and willing to buy and the ability to pay the price They are produced, distributed and supplied. , Business is any kind of business (Petersen and Plumann) believe that every exchange in which sales are made is not a business, but a business, any kind of reciprocating and renewal of the purchase It is a salesperson. The processor sees the business as a business case in which goods or services are distributed and distributed for sale on the market. Business startup, steps and steps to set up a business There is a lot to be done about the field of activity before the beginning of the work. What is the person’s background and interest in getting started? Then, the environment is to be studied and Homich Eni is examining the idea. Costs are estimated. And if it is cost effective, it starts to work. After proper planning, the company needs to inject capital that can provide the required capital in various ways. Adequate management can be very effective in business success. It takes managerial abilities to get the right decisions at the right time and properly manage the workforce. Idea Market Measure: Is your idea practical? (Marketing Research Business Plan Planning) Marketing Plan Funding Establishment Advertising Product or service evaluation Assessing weaknesses Evaluation Assessing changes based on customer feedback. (Feed Back Process) Social Responsibility of Companies From a Different Perspective According to Friedman’s view: "Organizations have a single and only responsibility, which is to use their resources and energy in ways that can take high profits. Should not go beyond the limits of the relevant laws and regulations, and there must be free competition, without fraud, deception ... "(11) Kate Davy "The law of responsibility is very rigid, and it is based on this: if a person uses his power in the long run in such a way that the society does not consider it his responsibility, he will inevitably lose his power. Went "(12) Robert Ackerman:" In the social effort of the organization, the type of reaction should be one of the goals
The response to social issues has a lifecycle. It begins by identifying the problem and proceeding through the research channel or study of the problem and considering ways to achieve it, and by presenting a The solution ends (13) Archie Carroll tried to integrate three views on social responsibility, old patterns and social sensitivity (social reaction), summing them together as a social function model of the organization. (14) In terms of this theory, discussions Social responsibility is shaped by economic, legal and ethical principles. (1) The ethical questions addressed at the four levels of the H Aststh 1: Society: Is it morally right that in a social system, the majority of people are deprived of their basic rights? Can the system of capitalism be a good system for the allocation of resources in the community or country? What role will the government play in regulating the market? (15) Level 2: Beneficiary groups: How should a company deal with foreign groups under What are the impact of its decisions and what kind of relationship with the organization should be on the stakeholders? What does the company have in relation to the society in which it lives and what does it have to do with the shareholders? (1) Level 3: In-house policy: What kind of contractor should a company be with workers and what kind of contractor can be based on equity? What are the interactions of workers and managers with each other? (1) Level 4: Personal relationships: Do we have to be honest with each other and at all costs we do not lose our honesty? Each of us as a human being, as well as someone who poses What are the responsibilities of each other in relation to higher officials, in relation to their subordinates and in relation to their counterparts? (1) Business ethics (AS) said: truth is the source of the faith and adornment of man, and he said elsewhere: truth is the best reason to win. Business literacy is a kind of applied ethics; therefore, from this point of view, common features with applied ethics such as ethics Bioethics, medical ethics, judicial ethics, engineering ethics, and media ethics. Business ethics should be demonstrated in terms of its ethical and applied field of ethics. From the perspective of the pragmatic approach that "every value should be {should} Aimed at realities and objectivity ", the equal importance of understanding business and economics on the one hand and reasoned ethical morality should be considered. Adapted on the other hand. The grammatical and cognitive dimensions of the subject must be separated, but not as a twofold distinct fact, otherwise it will be impossible to do business with the ethics of the economy. It will remain apparent and apparent, or separating lines will collapse. In the work experience, it seems that the two previous dimensions are generally accepted, which, of course, does not require any moral status; for example, when the manager is faced with an impregnable problem and pollution of the workplace, the nature, The causes and remedies that may cause this environmental damage, along with cost estimates, legal tools, and other things that are needed. In addition, he needs grammatical standards and uses it inevitably. The grammatical standards, such as deciding whether to follow the principle of continuity of work (or lack of continuity of work), and decides to observe (or abide by) the rules of the environment. Just sounding up to ethical guidelines is not enough. Similarly, it must recognize the type of corruption mechanism so that it can tackle and control this corruption by choosing an effective strategy. Business is a moral criterion. The notion that business and business are ways to express what people should do is in contrast to our shared experience. In the first place, this theory is in contradiction to the common language in society, because it seems that individuals should engage in business rather than other activities, such as charity, which are typically considered ethical. Secondly, it seems that this theory neglects activities that are usually unethical and criminal. If the business was an ethical criterion, none of the business activities could by no means be erroneous, and finally, if a business had the status of a moral standard, it seemed that there was no need for any kind of supervision The government did not, and the business organization, in its nature, did the right thing, and there was no need for law and business management. These are some of the reasons why it resists the idea that a business is a moral criterion. (16) The business ethics questionnaire (at the regional and national levels). 1. The ethics of business ethics Key Issues and Concepts in Your Country Or Your Area Defines Business Ethics Issues What is the Basics of Business Ethics, Common Definition and Understanding of it in your Country or Region? 2. Major Business Ethics in the Country What are your areas in your area? General issues? Special Issues? Cultural Dependence? What are the traditional practices of the international trade? What are the important measures to deal with these challenges? 3. Business ethics in the world of commerce What are the efforts of men from businesses, companies and business associations? Are the rules of behavior published and codified? How are ethical education programs, the position of ethical workers, and so on? What are the general announcements and information of business leaders? Legislation? And if so, how can domestic and foreign companies be evaluated from a moral point of view? By consumers, employees, investors or other groups and organizations, what are the expectations, criticisms and demands of The side of the public sector, such as the state
Non-governmental organizations, churches, etc. What are the main measures for managing business ethics? What are the main factors preventing these activities.4.Activity in business ethics Academic Centers What institutional arrangements have been made of business ethics? Seats, institutions, centers, networks, associations, etc. Finding, informing about this fundamental aspect, and what training activities have been done? Optional and compulsory, interdisciplinary conferences, student gatherings, surveys, information on business ethics education, and what research activities are carried out Is? Looking for information, teaching about business ethics, and what counseling activities? What is the basic design of business ethics used in these activities? 5. What are the common areas of business and academic centers in business ethics? Are they What challenges do you face? What are the common challenges? What kind of capabilities can each of them provide? 6. Business ethics in other countries and regions What experiences and insights, your country or region at the scientific level, field Economic sciences can provide those who think in the field of business ethics in other countries and regions? What lessons can your country or region Learn from other countries and regions? Source: jourmal of basimess etics, October, 1997,1477. Source: doing business database According to the chart above, unfortunately, Iran’s position in the business is very inadequate. And for the better, infrastructure must be changed and re-established in the business. A simple and easy way to work. Not knowing only the concepts associated with it can be managed best. To the extent that organizations and companies adhere to ethical principles, as much as each individual organization member should also be concerned with moral beliefs and virtues. Otherwise, the mere neglect of a member is enough to overcome many of the organizational equations. One of the most important factors Is a business environment. What business and business environments can reveal a lot of things. The business of a business in Asia is different from a business in a different country, such as Australia. But the ethical framework is very similar. It is not a false and false transaction that is the main criterion for any transaction. Business literacy may be from the perspective of many organizations involved in business. Stoner jim a.af Freeman Edward and Gilbert Daniel R. Management: An Introduction to Management, Management in the 21st Century, Planning. Translator Dr. Ali Parsayian and Dehnner Sayyed Mohammad Arabi. Chap. Six. Tehran, Ph.D., Cultural Studies, 13792. Gharashi, Seyyed Ali Akbar, Qomus Quran, 2, p. 293, Dar Kabb al-Islamiyah, Tehran, Sixth Printing, 1371; Tarihi, Fakhr al-Din, Assembly of Al-Bahrain, vol. 5, p. 156, Mortazavi Bookstore, Tehran Third Edition, 1375.] 3. [R. K: Tusi, Khaje Nasir-al-Din, Naseri’s Ethics, p. 14, Islamiyah Bookstore, Bay-e-Thu, Tehran.] 4. Quoted by Explicit and Adapted from Sufficient Principles, Vol. 1, p. 169, Hadith 3. (5) Bharalanavar, Volume 48, Page 239 - Manabib, Vol. 3, p. 414 (with a brief explanation). 6. Freiour, Mahdi, 2007, Professionalism and Craft Ethics in Ancient Iran, Professional Ethics in the Civilization of Iran and Islam, Ahad Faramarz Ghara Maleki et al., Tehran: Cultural and Social Experiences Research Institute, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology. Faramarz Gharamalki, Ahad, 2006, Professional Ethics, Second Edition. Qom: Majnan reconnaissance .8. Hosseiniyan, Simin, 1385, Ethics in Consultation and Psychology, Tehran: Kamal Tarbitat Publication 9. Faramarz Ghara Maleki, Ahd, 1382, Professional Ethics, Qom: Majnoon Publications. 10. Majid Pour, Akbar and Dehgoradi, Bahman 2007, Practical Teaching Practice, Ethical Charter of the Organization, Professional Ethics in the Civilization of Iran and Islam, Ahad Faramarz Qaralamaki et al., Tehran: Research Institute for Cultural and Social Studies, Ministry of Science, Research and Technology. Milton friedman, capitalism and freedom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963), p.133, and Milton friedman and rose friedman, free to choose (New York: harcout brace Jovanovich, 1980). 12 Keith Davis, "the meaning and scope of social responsibility ", in joseph w.mcGuire, ed., contemporary management (Englewood cliffs, nj: prentice hall, 1974): 631..13 Robert w. ackerman, "how companies respond to social demands," Harvard Business Review 51, no. 4 (July-August 1973): 88-98.see also Sandra L. Holmes, "adapting corporate structure for social responsiveness," California management review 21, no.1 (fall 1978): 45-54..14 Archie b. carroll, "a three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate social performance," the academy of management review 4 (1979): 497-506. It also carroll, social responsibility of management (Chicago: science research associates, 1984) and Kenneth e.aupperie b.carroll, and john d.hatfieid, "an empirical examination of the relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability," the academy of management Journal 28 (1985): 446-463.15 News trends, "Returning to South Africa," Fortune, Oct. 4, 1993, p.18..16 Enderle. Georges, BUSINESS ETHICS; in: Bunnin, N., Tsui - James, E.p. (eds). Blackwell Companion To Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell Publisher 2002
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