Persian gulf

مهر 25, 1396

The Persian Gulf is the name used by the ancient Gurus, which is located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, has been the Persian Gulf since the BCE century to the present day, and throughout the entire book Historical, geographic and geographic documents and maps and geographic atlases of the Persian Gulf have existed. There was no controversy about the name of the Persian Gulf until the 1960s, but after the British domination of the Gulf region, In order to expand their influence, the British drove the name of the Arabian Gulf to speak of hostility between the Arab states of the Persian Gulf and Persia. Rand so that they can rule themselves in this area.


The Persian Gulf is one of the oldest blue waters of the world that is politically, economically and socially significant in its strategic and unique significance. The Persian Gulf was dating from thousands of years ago, and the Persian Gulf has been the same in all periods of history. But in the twentieth century, some countries used fake Gulf Arabic names instead of the Persian Gulf to achieve their political goals, causing conflicts between the Persian Gulf states. The purpose of this article was to prove the legitimacy of the name of the Persian Gulf based on the books of historians And geographers and writers from the earliest days to the present. In this article, firstly called the Persian Gulf

Geography of the Persian Gulf

Persian Gulf or Pars-Abarah Sea, which runs along the Oman Sea and between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Its area is 233,000 square kilometers, followed by the Gulf of Mexico and the Hudson Bay, the third largest bay in the world. The Persian Gulf travels east from the Strait of Hormuz and the Oman Sea to the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea, and ends from the west to the Delta of the Arvandrood River, which is the result of the interconnection of the two rivers of the Tigris and Euphrates, and the adjoining Karun River, the Persian Gulf The ancient Iran and Arab countries of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Oman and Iraq have a common blue border. Since, on the one hand, Iran has the most common water border in the Persian Gulf and, on the other hand, has played a major role in the formation of the ancient civilization of this region. Also, during the history of the control and dominance of the Persian Gulf, Persia has been to Iranians. It is considered to be the main heritage of this region on Iran, and its most characteristic feature is the name of this water zone, which has been registered in the name of Iranians over the last three thousand years (Parsapoor, the site of the Pars Marine Research Center)


The name of the Persian Gulf in ancient times

The Assyrians, before reaching Iranians on the Iranian plateau, called the Persian Gulf "narmarratu", meaning "bitter river," and apparently this is the oldest name remaining from the Persian Gulf (Yaghmaei, 1352, p. 6).

After the victory of the Persian Empire on its neighboring states and the formation of the Achaemenid Empire, the river was called the Sea of ​​Pars. From Darius I to the inscription found next to the Suez Canal, dating back to 500 BC. The term "drya tyahache parsa" refers to the sea, which is referred to as the Persian Gulf, which refers to the Persian Gulf Sea. (Mashkor, 2008, p. 7).

The Greeks were the first people to call the Sea "Press" and to the land of Iran "Parseh", "Persia" and Persepolis, the Persian city or country (Shamloo, 1347, pp. 11-11)

Most Greek and Roman historians of that time have mentioned this sea called the Persian Gulf:

1) Flauvius Ariannus, who lived in the second century AD, in his book Anabazis or Alexander’s wars, called the Persian Gulf Persikon Kaitas, which translates it into Persian Gulf. (Maskour, 2008, p. 7)

2. The Greek geographer Strabun in his book, called the Persian Gulf the Persian Gulf, describes the Arabs as a region between the Arabian Gulf (the Red Sea) and the Persian Gulf. (Afsharsistan 1378, p. 2)

3. Claudius petol or Ptolemy, a geographer and mathematician of the second century AD, called the sea "Pericus sinus," which translates it into Persian Gulf (ibid., P. 2).

4. In the first map of the world, drawn by Anaxi-mannard, the Persian Gulf is called Persica Sines, which is the Persian Gulf (Atlas of Geographic Maps and Historical Documents on the Persian Gulf, p. 4).

5. In the history of the Armenian scholars, the Igatangz described the South Sea of ​​Iran as the Pars Sea (Shamloo, 1347, p. 15).

6. The Quintus Curtius Rufu, the Roman historian of the Persian Gulf, called the Aquarum persica, meaning the Pars reservoir (Arman Publication 27/7/84)

7. Hecatius Malati, a Greek scientist and father of geography, in the year 475 BC, has named the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Gulf (Red Sea) in a map drawn from his world of time (Nashat, 1344, p. 20).

8. Herodotus, the Greek historian, has called the ocean southwest of Asia from the Red Sea to the mouth of India as "Yesterros, or" Eritrea ", the Red Sea, some believe that Herodotus, as the Persian Gulf It is not known that it is named after this name, and has the same name as Eritrea, including the Indian Ocean, the Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf, but others believe that the meaning of the Eritrean Sea is the same as the Persian Gulf, because its data Precisely from the Oaks or Ojian tribe who lived in Khuzestan, and so it can not be accepted that the Persian Gulf is unknown to him. The masses. (Mousavi, 1367, p. 120)
9-Sheikh Nouri Mohammad Amir, The Name of the Persian Gulf in History, Maskvayh Journal, Winter 2005.

10-Aqli Baqir, The Days of Iranian History from Constitutional Revolution to Islamic Revolution, Tehran, Speech, Vol. II.

11-Mojtaheddzadeh, Abrar publication, 2/10/1383.

12-Mojtaheddzadeh Pirooz, Historical Geography of the Persian Gulf, Tehran, Tehran University Press, 1354.

13-Mojtahedi Abbas, Defense of the Persian Gulf, Tehran, Rasa Cultural Service Institute, 2004.

14- Proceedings of the National Conference on the Position of the Persian Gulf in the Strategic Developments in the World, by Gholam Hossein Vaezi, Vahid Lotfi, Geographical and Cartographic Institute of Geography, Tehran, 2009.

15-Meshkour Mohammad Javad, Persian Gulf Name in History, Tehran, Al-Mui, 2008.

16. Musavi Hassan, A Brief Discussion on the Historical and Political Geography of the Persian Gulf from the Oldest to the End of the Sassanid Period, Journal of Sociology and Social Sciences, Shiraz University, No. 6, Autumn 1988.

17. Mir Fakhraei Mohammad Hussein, Persian Gulf, or a fictitious name for it, Ghaffar Pour Bakhtiar Translation, Foreign Relations Quarterly, No. 20, Autumn 2004.

18. Sadeq Sadeq, Political History of the Persian Gulf, Tehran, Parenting Center of the Book, 1344.

19th Arman Magazine, 39th Anniversary English Arabic Thesaurus (Negligence in the Precision of Authorization for the Publishing of Historical and Tourism Books and Preservation of the Name of the Persian Gulf).

20th Iranian Perspective, Article 10 of the Historical Document for Proving the Name of the Persian Gulf.

21th Iqbal Bay, Gulf, Tehran, Ministry of Culture and Arts, 1356.


Colleague: Negar Faramarzi Master student of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
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